Código proyecto: RTA2013-00042-C10-00
17/09/2014 - 17/09/2017

Evaluación holística de factores de riesgo en abejas melíferas y polinizadores silvestres. Situación en España. | Holistic evaluation of risk factors in honey bees and wild pollinators. The situation in Spain.

Resumen / Abstract - Resultados / Scientific Publications

La conservación de la abundancia y diversidad de los polinizadores y de los servicios ecosistémicos, supone una contribución decisiva para la moderación de impactos negativos, que su déficit puede provocar sobre la agricultura, la producción y la seguridad alimentaria, la sostenibilidad medioambiental y los ecosistemas.

Las poblaciones de abejas melíferas de las explotaciones apícolas, con un valor de producción de 15.000 millones € anuales en la UE, y utilizadas también para proporcionar sistemas de polinización en régimen de gestión, se enfrentan igualmente a crecientes amenazas de plagas y enfermedades, registrándose aún un retroceso en el número de colonias de abejas tanto en la UE como en otras partes del mundo.

En términos económicos, y en un sector, también clave, como la agricultura en la UE,  la estimación realizada sobre valor de la polinización se situaría en 22.000 millones € anuales, y 3.292 millones € anuales, en España. Son varios los factores identificados como causas de la disminución de abejas y otros polinizadores, incluyendo la expansión de agentes patógenos, el mal uso de fitosanitarios, o los contaminantes ambientales, a parte de otros factores como la pérdida de hábitats y fragmentación, especies invasoras o el cambio climático.

El reto actual se centra en consolidar la investigación en esta problemática mediante la ponderación de riesgos, y la evaluación confluencias entre los principales factores que afectan a la abundancia y diversidad de los polinizadores. También, en avanzar en el conocimiento científico sobre la influencia de estos factores en la salud de los polinizadores, en condiciones de campo realistas, y en particular, en las condiciones climáticas de nuestro país.

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The conservation of pollinator abundance and diversity, together with  ecosystem services, contribute decisively in moderating any negative impacts their deficit may provoke in agriculture, food production and security, environmental sustainability and ecosystems. 

The honey bee population in apiaries, which has an annual production value in the EU of 15€ billion, and which is used to provide pollination system management, is facing growing threats from pests and diseases; and declines in bee colony numbers are still being registered as much in the EU as in other parts of the world.

In economic terms, given that agriculture is such a key sector in the EU, the estimated value of pollination is around 22€ billion annually, of which 3,292€ million is in Spain. Various factors have been identified in causing the reduction in bee and other pollinators including an expansion of pathogens, the incorrect use of phytosanitary products and/or environmental contaminants, along with other factors such as loss or fragmentation of habitat, invasive species and/or climate change.

The current challenge is to consolidate research on the issue using risk weighting, and the evaluation of potential convergence between the key factors that affect the abundance and diversity of the pollinators. Furthermore, we need to advance scientific knowledge regarding the influence of these factors on pollinator health, under realistic field conditions, and particularly bearing in mind our country’s climatic conditions.

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Resultados: Artículos científicos/ Scientific publications

2014:

Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry as a new approach toanalyze neonicotinoid insecticides. Chromatogr A, 2014, 1359, 317-324. Authors: Sánchez-Hernández L., Hernández-Domínguez D.,  Bernal J., Neusüß  C., Martín M.T., Bernal J.L.

Trace analysis of seven neonicotinoid insecticides in bee pollen by solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Food Anal Method, 2014, 7, 490-499. Authors: K. P. Yáñez, J. L. Bernal, M. J. Nozal, M. T. Martin, J. Bernal.

Determination of spinosad at trace levels in bee pollen and beeswax with solid–liquid extraction and LC–ESI-MS. J Sep Sci, 2014, 37:204-210. Authors: K. P. Yáñez, M. T. Martín, J. L. Bernal, M. J. Nozal, J. Bernal.

Holistic screening of collapsing honey bee colonies in Spain: a case study. BMC  Research Notes, 2014, 7:649 Authors: Cepero A., Ravoet  J., Gómez-Moracho T., Bernal  J.L., Del Nozal M.J., Bartolomé C., Maside X., Meana A. González-Porto A.V., de Graaf D. C., Martín-Hernández R. and Higes M.

2015:

A sensitive and efficient method for routine pesticide multiresidue analysis in bee pollen samples using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Chromatogr. A 2015, 1426, 161-173 Authors: Vázquez, P.P., Lozano, A.,  Uclés, S.,  Ramos, M.M.G.,  Fernández-Alba, A.R

Stable genetic diversity despite parasite and pathogen spread in honey bee colonies. Sci Nat 2015, 102:53. Authors: Jara L., Muñoz I., Cepero A., Martín-Hernández R., Serrano J., Higes M., De la Rúa P.

Recent worldwide expansion of  Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) in Apis mellifera populations inferred from multilocus patterns of genetic variation. Infect Genet Evol  2015, 31: 87-94. Authors: Gómez-Moracho T., Bartolomé C., Bello X., Martín-Hernández R., Higes M., Maside X.

Differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim. J Invertebr Pathol, 2015, 130:21-27. Authors: Ravoet J., Schwarz R.S., Descamps T., Yañez O., Ozge Tozkar O., Martin-Hernandez R., Bartolomé C., De Smet L., Higes M., Wenseleers T., Schmid-Hempel R., Neumann P., Kadowaki T., Evans J.D., de Graaf D.C.

Effect of oxalic acid on Nosema ceranae infection. Res. Vet. Sci. 2015, 102: 167-172. Authors: Nanetti A., Rodriguez-García C., Meana A., Martín-Hernández R., Higes M.

Passive laboratory surveillance in Spain: pathogens as risk factors for honey bee colony collapse.  J Apic Res  2015, 5: 54. Authors: Cepero A., Martín-Hernández R., Bartolome C., Gómez-Moracho T., Barrios L., Bernal J., Martín M.T., Meana A., Higes M.

Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories Plos one 2015, 10(12): e0145609. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145609. Authors: Maside X., Gómez-Moracho T., Jara L., Martín-Hernández R., De la Rúa P., Higes M., Bartolomé C.

Reliability of the main field diagnostic methods of Varroa in honey bee colonies. Arch. Zootec. 2015, 64:161-166. Authors: Flores, J.M., Gil, S., Padilla, F.

Implementation of an electronic system to monitor the thermoregulatory capacity of honeybee colonies in hives with open-screened bottom boards. Comput Electron Agric. 2015, 119: 200-216. Authors: Sánchez V., Gil S., Flores J.M., Quiles F.J., Ortíz M.A., Luna J.J.

2016:

Importance of Ecological Factors and Colony Handling for Optimizing Health Status of Apiaries in Mediterranean Ecosystems. Plos one 2016, 11(10): e0164205. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164205. Authors: Asensio I., Vicente-Rubiano M., Muñoz Reoyo M.J., Fernández-Carrión E., Sánchez-Vizcaíno J.M., Carballo M.

Fast determination of neonicotinoid insecticides in bee pollen using QuEChERS and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis 2016, 37: 2470-2477. Authors: Valverde S., Bernal J.L., Martín M.T., Nozal M.J., Bernal J.

Simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticides in sunflower-treated seeds (hull and kernel) by LC-MS/MS. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2016, 33:442-51. Authors: Sánchez L., Higes M., Martín M.T., Nozal M.J., Bernal J.L.

Residues of neonicotenoids and their metabolites in honey and pollen from sunflower and maize seed dressing crops. Chromatogr A, 2016, 1428: 220-227. Authors: Sánchez L., Hernández D., Martín M.T., Nozal M.J., Higes M., Bernal J.L

Survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera) infected with Crithidia mellificae spheroid forms (Langridge and McGhee: ATCC ® 30254™) in the presence of Nosema ceranae. Span J Agric Res 2016, 14:: 2171-9292 http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2016143-8722. Authors: Higes M., Rodríguez-García C., Gómez-Moracho T., Meana A., Bartolomé C., Maside X., Barrios L., Martín-Hernández R.

Screening of environmental contaminants in honey bee wax comb using gas chromatography-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Environ Sci  Pollut Res 2016, 23:4609-4620. Authors: Gómez-Ramos M. M. García-Valcárcel A.I., Tadeo J.L., Fernández-Alba A.R  and Hernando M.D.

Determination of selected environmental contaminants in foraging honeybees. Talanta 2016, 148: 1-6. Authors: García-Valcárcel A.I., Molero E., Tadeo J.L., Hernando M.D.

Screening of pesticide residues in honeybee wax comb by LC-ESI-MS/MS. A pilot study. Chemosphere 2016, 163: 44-53. Authors: Herrera López, S., Lozano, A., Sosa, A., Hernando, M.D., Fernández-Alba, A.R.

2017:

Multiresidue method for trace pesticide analysis in honeybee wax comb by GC-QqQ-MS. Talanta 2017, 163: 54-64. Authors: García, M.D.G., Uclés, S., Fernández, A.B.L., Sosa, A., Fernández-Alba, A.R.

Non-target evaluation of contaminants in honey bees and pollen samples by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 2017, 184: 1310-1319. Authors: Hakme, E., Lozano, A.,Gómez-Ramos, M.M.,  Hernando, M.D.,  Fernández-Alba, A.R.

Palabras Clave / Keywords

  • Abejas meliferas
  • polinizadores
  • Pesticidas
  • patógenos
  • nutrición
  • diversidad genética
  • medioambiente
  • Honey Bees
  • pollinators
  • pesticides
  • pathogens
  • Nutrition
  • genetic diversity
  • Enviroment
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